In December 2015, at the UNFCCC COP21 in Paris, the world adopted the Paris Agreement, a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. Compared to the Kyoto Protocol, the agreement is characterized (for now) by a consensus with all 197 Member States. www.climatechangenews.com/2018/07/12/countries-yet-ratify-paris-agreement/ The long-term effects on the development of renewable energy are somewhat less certain, but in theory the cost of hydrocarbons will increase when limited supply decreases. Renewable energy, on the other hand, has a theoretically unlimited source of energy from the sun, wind, heat or water sources, which would mean lower energy prices for end consumers. Cost reduction is expected to increase profitability and efficiency for end-users. It brings additional health benefits, as efforts to reduce greenhouse gases can also improve air quality. Air pollution currently kills 7 million people each year. There is a recognized gap between the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions and where the negative effects of these increases would be most felt, including the specific consequences for offshore fishing. People living in developing countries (Figure 3, blue circles) generally emit much less CO2 per capita, but are relatively more dependent on seafood when they have animal proteins and are more likely to be negatively affected than people in developed countries if the agreement is not implemented (Figure 3). The scientific consensus predicts that potential catches in the tropics will decrease (low emissions per capita) and increase in economically advanced regions at higher latitudes (high per capita emissions) (1, 5). The benefits of implementing the agreement, as reflected in our results, also directly contribute to major related international agreements, such as the Un Sustainable Development Goals (18), in particular Goals 1 (no poverty), 2 (zero hunger), 8 (decent work and economic growth) and 14 (sub-sea life) and others through co-downstream benefits (19). Equations (11) and (12) show that both parameters influence the weight of well-being of future generations in current policy. In particular, they influence the importance of protection from future climate effects on current policies and weigh on the benefits that future companies could derive from the emission reduction costs that the current generation would have to bear.
The choice of their values is therefore essential to assess climate policy. In addition, Eq shows. (12) they can also influence the balance between optimal consumption and, hence, optimal indirect investments, thus altering the growth effects that determine our results. The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments.